Abstract

Patient: Female, 27-year-old

Final diagnosis: Ulcerative Colitis

Ulcerative colitis signs and Symptoms: bloody diarrhoea, abdominal tenderness and crampy abdominal pain, and weight loss

Speciality: Gastroenterology and hepatology

Objective

Causes, symptoms, and treatment of severe ulcerative colitis

Background

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon and rectum. Going by the severe ulcerative colitis definition, it does not affect the upper gastrointestinal tract. It causes inflammation and ulcers in the digestive tract. It affects the inner lining of the large intestine and rectum. The symptoms of the disease develop over time; they do not appear suddenly. Although the disease can occur at any age, it is less common in children. ulcerative colitis symptoms in females

Case Review

In this case study on ulcerative colitis, a twenty seven-year-old girl was brought to the clinic with a history of prolonged diarrhoea that had lasted ten weeks and was progressive. The patient presented frequent passage of stool with small amounts of blood, abdominal pain and noticeable weight loss. She also reported bowel movements about ten times per day. On reviewing the patient, it was observed that there was fever, vomiting, jaundice, joint pains or mouth ulcers. She was suffering from crampy abdominal pain, which was neither relieved nor aggravated by any known factor. The symptoms were associated with noticeable weight loss despite a good appetite and sufficient diet. No other urinary or respiratory symptoms were reported.  On physical examination, she was pale, weighed 19 kgs and was neither irritable nor dehydrated. The rectum appeared to be narrowed, and the examination finger had stains of blood. These findings suggested the presence of ulcerative colitis.

Case Discussion

Ulcerative colitis affects adults and children globally. Currently, there is an ulcerative colitis cure for the disease. The goal of the treatment is to control the symptoms with the least possible side effects of the medicines prescribed and enable the patient to function normally. A comprehensive approach is suggested for effective treatment and management of ulcerative colitis. She should be treated and followed up by a team consisting of a gastroenterologist, paediatrician and hepatologist. The line of treatment for severe ulcerative colitis treatment depends on the severity of the infection. The signs of abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhoea, the urgency to defecate but an inability to do so, weight loss, and abdominal tenderness were indicative of mild ulcerative colitis. Medicines were prescribed to reduce inflammation and patient-reported reduction of symptoms after a continual treatment. In some instances of acute colitis ulcerative colitis complications, the patient may require surgery. However, it is complementary to the medical procedures and is advised only for preventing complications.

Clinical Symptoms

Ulcerative colitis, an inflammatory bowel disease, causes inflammation and sores in the digestive tract. The symptoms can vary depending on the location of the inflammation and its severity. The symptoms do not happen overnight but usually develop over time. The inflammation damages the inner lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum. Some common symptoms include diarrhoea often accompanied with pus or blood, pain in the abdomen, pain in the rectum area, rectal bleeding, or blood with stool, having a feeling to defecate but not being able to despite the urgency. In severe cases, the patient may experience fatigue, weight loss and fever.

The patient had mild to moderate symptoms with bleeding, pain, and problems in passing stool.

Management

The type of treatment depends on the reasons behind ulcerative colitis. In most cases, the treatment option includes symptomatic care, medicines to regulate bowel movement. In some cases, patients who have acute colitis may need IV fluid to restore fluid balance. Blood tests and stool tests were advised to confirm the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis. Primarily, the treatment involves medications that reduce inflammation. The medicines that work on some people may not work for another person usually, as it takes some time to identify medicines that help relieve the symptoms. As drugs have side effects, the risks and benefits were weighed before prescribing the medicines and supporting disease management. When medicines do not seem to be effective, then surgery is an option. The process involves the removal of the rectum and colon. Though disease management is a challenge, making lifestyle and diet changes can help control the symptoms. Though there is no evidence that what you eat causes ulcerative colitis, certain foods are known to aggravate the symptoms and flare-ups. Here are some general suggestions for a severe ulcerative colitis diet:

  • Restrict dairy products intake: Often, problems like diarrhoea, gas, and abdominal pain can improve by limiting or eliminating the dairy products.
  • Eat small meals: The symptoms often abate by consuming five to six smaller meals than two to three larger ones.
  • Keep hydrated: It is best to drink as much water as possible. Consuming drinks that contain caffeine can worsen the symptoms.

In this case, the patient was put on medicines as it was a mild case of ulcerative colitis. After a few months of therapy, the patient reported relief in the symptoms. She was advised to make lifestyle changes as complementary to medicine.

With routine check-ups and adequate treatment, ulcerative colitis can be cured.  If you or someone you know is experiencing any of the symptoms above, consult the gastro & liver clinic Patna Bihar. It is best to consult gastroenterologists online free or online gastroenterologist doctors. Excellent medical assistance is available in several cities, including best physician in Jammu city, max hospital liver specialist, nor gastro liver clinic Gurgaon, the best doctor in Patna for stomach, best female gynaecologist in Jhansi, liver cirrhosis specialist doctor in India, and gastro surgeon in Delhi

FAQs

1. Is the colon the same as the large intestine?

Yes, ulcerative colitis is the inflammation of the large intestine or the colon.

2. What is the most primary symptom of ulcerative colitis?

Rectal bleeding is a significant symptom. However, other symptoms presented with the disease are diarrhoea and cramping abdominal pain.

3. Can antibiotics help in curing ulcerative colitis?

Antibiotics cannot help in the cure of ulcerative antibiotics. They only help in the management of the disease.