Lactose intolerance or sensitivity to milk and milk products is a common dietary concern affecting millions of people worldwide. This condition occurs when the body cannot properly digest lactose, a sugar in milk and dairy products. While it is not life-threatening, it can cause uncomfortable and sometimes embarrassing symptoms. The condition can sometimes be very debilitating and frustrating as people are unable to eat a lot of food. In this blog post, we will look into lactose intolerance’s causes, symptoms, and management to help you better understand this condition.

What is Lactose Intolerance?

Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest lactose, a sugar in milk and dairy products. This occurs due to a deficiency of lactase enzyme, which breaks down lactose into simpler sugars (glucose and galactose) that the body can absorb. This enzyme is located in the lining of the small intestine. When lactose is not properly digested, it can lead to various gastrointestinal symptoms.
It’s crucial to distinguish that lactose intolerance differs from a milk allergy.

Milk allergy is an immune response to proteins in milk and can be life-threatening. In contrast, lactose intolerance is a digestive issue related to the inability to break down lactose.

Causes of Lactose Intolerance

  • Primary Lactose Intolerance: This is typically genetic. As individuals age, their production of lactase enzymes may decrease, making it more difficult to digest lactose.
  • Secondary Lactose Intolerance: This type of lactose intolerance is usually caused by an underlying condition or injury to the small intestine. Several gastrointestinal infections that present with diarrhea or vomiting may leave behind a self-limited lactase deficiency. Celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, tropical sprue, and giardiasis can damage the intestinal lining, leading to temporary lactose intolerance.
  • Congenital Lactase Deficiency: This is a rare genetic condition in which an individual is born with a complete lack of lactase enzyme. It is typically diagnosed in infancy and requires strict dietary management.

Common Lactose Intolerance Symptoms

The lactose intolerance symptoms can vary in severity and typically appear within 30 minutes to 2 hours after consuming lactose-containing foods or beverages. Common symptoms include

Managing Lactose Intolerance

While lactose intolerance cannot be cured, it can be managed effectively through dietary adjustments and, in some cases, with the help of lactase supplements. Here are some suggestions for handling lactose intolerance

  • Limit Dairy Consumption: Reduce or eliminate your intake of milk, cheese, yogurt, and other dairy products. Many non-dairy alternatives are available, such as almond milk, soy milk, and lactose-free dairy products.
  • Lactase Supplements: Over-the-counter lactase supplements can help some individuals digest lactose more effectively. These supplements are taken before consuming dairy products. Gradually reintroduce dairy into your diet to assess your tolerance level, as some individuals with lactose intolerance may handle small amounts of lactose without symptoms.
  • Treat infections after consulting a doctor: If you have developed lactose intolerance after recovering from an infection like diarrhea or vomiting. Please see your doctor and make sure that the infection is treated completely. Once the infection is treated, you can digest milk products better.
  • Consult a Dietitian: A registered dietitian can provide personalized dietary guidance and help you plan a balanced diet that meets your nutritional needs while avoiding lactose.


Lactose intolerance is a common digestive issue that can lead to uncomfortable gastrointestinal symptoms. However, with proper management and dietary adjustments, individuals with lactose intolerance can lead a normal, healthy life. Understanding the causes, symptoms, and available strategies for managing lactose intolerance is essential to ensure a comfortable and enjoyable diet.